Direct instruction

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Direct instruction typically has these components:guided practice, corrective and positive feedback, independent practice, frequent reviews (cumulative weekly and monthly reviews).

Institute of Education Sceinces (IES). Direct Instruction Report.  Direct Instruction was found to have no discernible effects on the oral language, print knowledge, cognition, and math skills of special education students.

Evidence Based Practice: System for increasing structure and predictability

Once students who are at-risk of school failure due to social, emotional or behavioral issues have been identified through a screening process, schools will need to develop a set of evidence-based interventions that can address those needs. These interventions should be aligned to the classroom and schoolwide behavioral expectations that have been previously developed and they should increase structure and predictability for students. One such intervention is a check-in and check out system called Teacher Check, Connect and Expect (TCCE). TCCEis a teacher-based intervention that relies on classroom teachers providing positive, specific, and corrective feedback to students at specified intervals during the school day that are connected to schoolwide and classroom expectations for positive behavior. TCCE is an adaptation of Check & Connect program, the Behavior Education Program, and Check, Connect, and Expect. TCCE is based on the theory that relationships with school staff, reinforcement of clear expectations and social behavior, and engagement in school activities contribute to improved academic and social outcomes of students. All these programs rely on practices that have empirical support for students. The common practices include: a) daily supervision, monitoring, and coaching; b) frequent feedback on academic and social performance; c) point systems based on social and academic goals; d) reinforcement for meeting criteria on the goals; and e) use of a positive adult role model. Details on implementation are included in the resource handout.


    1. Preventing Severe Problem Behavior in Young Children: The Behavior Education Program by Hawken and Johnston. Journal of Early & Intensive Behavior Intervention. 2007, 4(3), p. 599-613.

    2. The Effects of a Targeted Intervention to Reduce Problem Behaviors by Anne Todd, et. al. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 2008, 10 (1), p. 46-55.

    3. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program by Lane, et. al. Education & Treatment of Children. 2012, 35(1), p. 51-90.

    4. Lessons Learned From Implementing a Check-in/Check-out Behavioral Program in an Urban Middle School by Myers, Briere, and Simensen. Beyond Behavior, 2010, 19 (2), p. 21-27.


1. Check In Check Out Overview:

2. Sandown North ES 1 Teacher Check, Connect Video 1:

3. Sandown North ES 1 Age, Connect Video 2:

4. South Division High School Check In Check Out Video:

Learn More

The following ebook is available at Fordham University: 

Hood, W.J.; Steffey, S. (1994). If this is Social Studies, Why Isn't it Boring? Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Retrieved from:

Taylor, S.; Standford, E., Samuels, S. J.  (2011). Exploring Silent Reading Fluency: Its Nature and Development. Illinois: Charles C Thomas Publishing. Retrieved from:

Vadasy, P. F.; Nelson, P. (2012). Vocabulary Instruction for Struggling Students. New York: Guilford Press. Retrieved from:

By Muscott, Howard, posted on Thursday January 2, 2014


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